Geoarchaeology is a fascinating application of geologic tools and disciplines, and I came across a post on the Through the Sandglass blog about a Geology Today article on “Coastal and ancient harbour archaeology”. In a quote from the article:
It has effectively been demonstrated that ancient harbours constitute outstanding archives of both the cultural and environmental pasts.
One example of the application of this scientific field is by looking at sediment gradation and number of ostracod (microscopic crustaceans) assemblages per 10g of sand in core samples. The resulting data can help reconstruct the history of the port.