LRFD for Geotech – Note 2

6.0  References

AASHTO (2007). AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 4th Edition.  American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.

AASHTO (2002). Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition.  American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.

Allen, T. M., Nowak, A. And Bathurst, R, J. (2005). Calibration to Determine Load and Resistance Factors for Geotechnical and Structural Design.  Transportation Research Circular E-C079, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 83 p.

Baecher, G. B. (1987). “Geotechnical Risk Analysis User’s Guide,” Report No. FHWA/RD-87-011, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

Baecher, G. B. and Christian, J. T. (2003). Reliability and Statistics in Geotechnical Engineering.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 p.

Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. (2000). Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering DesignJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc., 304 p.

Law, A. M. and Kelton, W. D. (1991). Simulation Modeling and Analysis, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 759 p.

Leonards, G. A. (1982). “Investigation of Failures,” – Sixteenth Terzaghi Lecture, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 108 (GT2), pp. 185-246.

NCS (2006). “A Primer on LRFD,”

NCS (2007). “LRFD for Substructures – Limit States and Interaction between Structural and Geotechnical Specialists,” Article # 01-0507-R0, available on or in PDF format at

Paikowsky, S. G., Birigsson, B., McVay, M., Nguyen, T., Kuo, V., Baecher G., Ayyub, B., Stenersen, K, O’Malley, K., Chernauskas, L., and O’Neill, M. (2004). Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Deep Foundations. NCHRP Report 507, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 126 p.

Phoon, K-K, Kulhawy, F. H., Grigoriu, M. D. (2003). “Development of a Reliability-Based Design Framework for Transmission Line Structure Foundations,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 129, No. 9, pp. 798-806.

Rosenblueth, E. and Esteva, L. (1972). Reliability Basis for Some Mexican Codes. ACI Publication SP-31, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI.

Whitman, R. V. (1984). “Evaluating Calculated Risk in Geotechnical Engineering,” – Seventeenth Terzaghi Lecture, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 110 (GT2), pp. 145-188.

Withiam, J., Votyko, E., Barker R., Duncan, J. M., Kelly, B., Musser, S. and Elias, V. (1998). Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures.  Report No. FHWA HI-98-032, Federal Highway Administration,

7.0  Acknowledgements

The author wishes to acknowledge the following individuals (in alphabetical order of first names) for their effort in reviewing this article and providing comments:

  • Dennis R. Mertz, PhD, PE, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
  • Edward A. Nowatzki, PhD, PE, Principal Engineer, NCS Consultants, LLC, and Professor Emeritus, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Tucson, AZ.
  • Jerry A. DiMaggio, PE, Principal Bridge Engineer (Geotechnical), Federal Highway Administration, Office of Bridge Technology, Washington, D.C.

8.0  Comments and Discussions

This article is part of a series of articles in which elements of the author’s continuing work on the subject of LRFD will be reported.  The author welcomes review comments and discussions and can be reached at or .  Depending on the comments, any given article may be revised and re-issued or a separate article containing the discussions may be issued.  Revised articles that are re-issued will be identified with a revised article number as reflected by the last digit of the article number, e.g., if an article with number ##-####-R0 is revised one time, then it will have the article number ##-####-R1.  Articles containing discussions  will be identified by the suffix D instead of R in the article number.  The readers are therefore encouraged to check for the latest versions of articles by contacting the author or visiting

9.0  Disclaimer

This article is part of a series of articles published at  Each article presents general discussions on a discrete topic for educational purposes only and is not intended to render engineering or other professional services.  The reader is encouraged to read all previous articles pertaining to the topic of this article, including revisions, in order to obtain a better understanding of the contents of this article.  Use of this or other articles in whole or in part for design, construction or any other application is at the sole risk of the user.  If such engineering or professional services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.  The author or NCS Consultants, LLC, shall not be responsible or liable in any way for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of the use of the information provided in this article.

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